Newsletter: Volume 40, July 2002
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Sale Items of the Month:
Accelerade: was $23.95,
R4: was $29.99 for 2.28
lb. canister, now $28.99 Was $45.99 for 4.56 lb. canister, now $43.49
Excel caplets: were
$17.99 for 60, now $16.99
Marine Corps Marathon numbers may be available!
As the Official Training Program and Pacing Team for the Marine
Corps Marathon, we have a limited number of entries. If you are
interested in obtaining a number, email Michele@JeffGalloway.com
your fax number immediately as the availability is on a first come
first served basis. - JG
Injury Survey Results from Newsletter Volume 39's Survey
will be available in next month's newsletter. Thanks for participating!
Recovery Tips from Jeff Galloway
1. Soak in a cool tub. Within two hours of the finish of your run
is the best time to do this. There is some experiential evidence
that doing this every day for 5-10 minutes will help to maintain
recovery. You don't have to soak the whole body--just the legs.
Some runners are even finding that soaking in a cool tub the night
before seems to help them the next morning.
2. Eat a 4:1 snack. Very good research is showing that you'll recover
faster if you eat a snack within two hours of exercise (one hour
is better) that has a 4:1 ratio of carbohydrate to protein. If you
don't like to measure and calculate, there are two products that
do it for you: Accelerade (during the run) and Endurox R4 (afterward).
Both are available on our website at http://jeffgalloway.com/http://www.jeffgalloway.com/search.aspx
. Note: Ciwujia is a gensing extract that has been shown to improve
recovery. It has been removed from R4 to make that product NCAA
compliant--for political reasons. The Endurox EXCEL tablets have
Ciwujia and have an army of runners who believe in their recovery
power. I take two tablets before hard runs and when my legs begin
to build up lingering fatigue.
3. Massage. Massage generates blood flow and helps to remove the
"junk" that was produced during the exercise. For the first two
days, a gentle massage is usually best. After that time period,
you could work a bit harder each day, working out the lumps and
achy areas. An experienced massage therapist is the best. You can
get almost the same effect in most leg areas by using "the Stick"
which is available on our website.
4. Walk. Walking for 10-20 minutes after a run is a powerful way
of moving the blood and promoting recovery. A good walk of 30-60
minutes, the day after a hard run, will help recovery. 5. Use an
energizer like GU during long runs. The first product of this nature
was put out by the GU company and has been the most successful product
as reported to me by the runners that I hear from every year. You
will start the recovery process during the run by taking a third
or a fourth of a packet of GU, about every one to two miles during
a long run, with a little water.
Join a group! There are several great groups across the
country which can pull you along to your marathon or half marathon
goal this fall. Sample the groups for free. Call 800-200-2771 x
11 for details or see the ³Training
NEW IN 2002--GALLOWAY'S BOOK ON RUNNING 2ND EDITION. Jeff
Galloway's classic has been expanded to include motivation, nutrition,
fat-burning, 5K training schedules, half marathon training schedules,
walk breaks and more. Available, autographed, on our website in
our Merchandise section.
Come to Athens for "The Original"
There's still space on our tour to the Athens Marathon, November
3. Not only can you run a half or a full marathon over the original
course from Marathon to Athens but you can also go with Jeff as
he takes the participants on trails above the Aegean Sea and on
tours where you can run on the same fields used by ancient Olympians.
Go to www.athensmarathon.com
or email Paul Samaras at firstname.lastname@example.org
Distance Run - August 31
Chicago Half Marathon
- September 8
- October 13 - I just visited this beautiful city of trails
to kick off the training season for the Durango Marathon. This is
the first marathon in this area and it will be memorable. Put it
on your calendar!
Corps Marathon - October 27
Tips for summertime running
Adjusting for Heat: As the weather gets hotter, you must
slow down your pace from the beginning. Also, in most places in
North America, you'll need to make adjustments for the humidity.
The higher the humidity, the sooner you'll feel the effect of the
heat and the more difficult it will be to continue. Watch the weather
reports and install a temperature and humidity gauge at your house.
After a while, you'll learn the combination of the two that causes
you discomfort and can avoid the times of the day when those conditions
Training for hot weather: One day a week, you can train
yourself to deal with the heat by inserting the hot segments below
into your run, even if you are starting in the middle of winter.
Of course, you need to run at least two other days per week, and
you must do this heat training day every week. At the first indication
of symptoms of heat disease, stop running before you get into trouble.
The process of heat training follow the same principles as conditioning
for endurance and speed. By pushing yourself a little bit and then
backing off, your body makes adaptations and can deal with the heat
better the next time. On each run, warm up for at least 10 minutes
of easy running (and walking), and ease off with at least 10 minutes
of easy running (and walking) after the heat phase. If the outdoor
temperature is cool, you may put on one or more layers of clothes,
especially on the upper body, during the hot segment. You may also
do these segments indoors. Take it very easy on these segments.
You're only working on heat adaptation, not speed or intensity.
from Galloway's Book on Running,
2nd edition (Shelter Publications, 2002), pp. 62-63 .
The Athlete's Kitchen
Sports Nutrition Update: News from ACSM
Copyright: Nancy Clark, MS, RD 6/02.
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) is the nation's
largest professional organization for exercise scientists, sports
nutritionists and other sports medicine specialists. Every May,
experts from around the country and the world gather to present
the latest information at the ACSM convention. The following are
some highlights from the May, 2002 meeting in St. Louis.
Bodybuilders commonly wonder when is the best time to eat protein
to optimize muscular growth. The latest research suggests having
some amino acids (the building blocks of protein) circulating in
the blood while you are exercising can optimize the muscle-building
process. This simply means eating a pre-exercise snack that includes
a combination of carb (for energy) and protein (for muscle building):
cereal with milk, yogurt and a banana, bagel with peanut butter,
trail mix (nuts and dried fruit), or a turkey sandwich. You need
not run to the store to buy the latest protein bars or drinks; standard
foods can do the job just fine!
Exercise scientists have questioned why some female athletes stop
menstruating and others maintain regular menstrual periods despite
a rigorous exercise program. According to Dr. Anne Loucks of Ohio
University, amenorrhea (loss of the menstrual period) is caused
by undereating. Women with amenorrhea fail to increase their calorie
intake to account for the calories they burn during exercise. When
the brain detects an energy deficiency, it immediately turns off
the reproductive system.
If untreated, amenorrhea can lead to poor bone health, stress fractures
and premature osteoporosis. The solution is to eat more calories,
preferably a nice balance of whole grains, lean protein-rich foods,
lowfat dairy products and healthful fats (salmon, nuts, peanut butter).
For example, calories can be added by enjoying a yogurt for a morning
snack the first week, then a half-cup of beans on a lunchtime salad
the next week, potato with dinner the third week, etc. By gradually
increasing calories over the course of three to five weeks, a woman
can reverse the situation and not only be healthier (as indicated
by regular menses) but also feel better and be better fueled for
stronger workouts. Because these are not excess calories, they are
unlikely to cause the women to "get fat." Rather, the body burns
the fuel and becomes fully functional, as opposed to shutting down
to conserve energy.
Iron deficiency anemia ("iron poor blood") is a cause of needless
fatigue, primarily among female athletes. Women are more likely
to suffer from anemia than are men, because women tend to eat less
red meat (the best source of dietary iron), lose iron via menstrual
bleeding, and skip breakfast (i.e., fail to eat iron-enriched breakfast
cereals). A little bit of iron can also be lost via sweat or intestinal
bleeding but, according to Dr. Randy Eichner of the University of
Oklahoma, this loss is minimal. Dr. Eichner believes sports do not
cause anemia but rather sports unmask it. That is, a sedentary woman
could be unaffected by having mild anemia, whereas the active woman
would notice a difference in physical performance. Regular blood
tests in competitive athletes can help detect shifts in iron levels
and prevent anemia.
Epidemic of obesity
Obesity is a major public health concern: 25% of children are now
classified as overweight (or at risk of overweight); 61% of American
adults are overweight or obese. Sedentary behavior is a contributing
factor. Because 73% of kids ages 12 to 17 years spend a significant
amount of time surfing the Internet, websites are an excellent way
to reach this audience. A new site, www.kidnetic.com,
is helping kids and families get positive messages about ways to
be more active and fuel their bodies healthfully. The program designers
studied what motivates kids (looking better, performing better,
having more energy to do fun things). Hence, the content focuses
on these fitness "pay offs."
Anyone who has ever experienced severe muscle cramps wants to know
how to prevent them. According to Dr. Michael Bergeron of the Medical
College of Georgia, salt is a key cramp preventer. Having worked
with numerous tennis players who exercise in extreme heat, Dr. Bergeron
noticed the athletes who suffer from cramps could resolve the problem
by adding more salt to their daily diets. Case in point: a tennis
player who regularly cramped badly, despite drinking plenty of fluids.
His father had high blood pressure and consequently, the entire
family ate a low sodium diet. Once the player started eating more
pretzels, table salt and sports drinks, the cramping problem dissipated.
Dr. Martin Schwellnus of the University of Cape Town Medical School
in South Africa offers another theory based on science rather than
anecdotes. He believes cramps occur when the muscles are fatigued.
A nerve malfunction creates an imbalance between muscle excitation
and inhibition; the muscle doesn't relax. His solution: stretch
In the effort to prevent muscle cramps and dehydration, some endurance
athletes drink copious amounts of fluids, so much so they dilute
their blood to the point sodium levels are dangerously low. This
often occurs in slower marathoners who take the advice to drink
at every water station. Excess water, in combination with a low
salt diet, increases the risk of suffering from hyponatremia (low
blood sodium); the athlete becomes tired, nauseous, disoriented
or even worse (a seizure). The solution: Don't avoid salt and don't
drink if your stomach is sloshing!
Exercise and weight loss
The myth is, if you add on exercise you'll lose body fat. The truth
is, if you create a calorie deficit, you'll lose body fat. In a
study with previously sedentary overweight males and females (average
ages 22-24 years) who exercised 5 times a week for 16 months with
no dietary restrictions, the men lost 12 lb. (body fat dropped 27
to 22%); they failed to eat enough to compensate for the extra calories
burned. The women, however, had no significant weight or body fat
changes; their appetites kept up with their calorie expenditure.
In a study with 220 women (ages 35-45), changes in calorie intake
(i.e., eating less food) were more closely related to changes in
body fatness than were changes in exercise. This means: remember
to subtract food, not just add on exercise!
Nancy Clark, MS, RD, nutrition counselor at SportsMedicine Associates
in Brookline MA, is author of Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook
($23) and her newest title Nancy Clark's Food Guide for Marathoners:
Tips for Everyday Champions ($20). Both are available by sending
a check to Sports Nutrition Services, 830 Boylston St #205, Brookline
MA 02467 or via www.nancyclarkrd.com.
World, July 2002, p. 24:
Take the Pressure Off: New research shows that a single
45-minute workout can lower your blood pressure for 22 hours. Many
previous studies have shown that a regular fitness program decreases
blood pressure for the long term.
Fatigue-Fighting Fiber: Eating a high-fiber breakfast helps
reduce fatigue, say British researchers. In their study, participants
who ate a high-fiber breakfast reported clearer thinking, less fatigue
and less emotional distress than those who ate a low-fiber breakfast.
From American Running Association's
Running and Fit News, May 2002:
Ever wonder what is behind the ubiquitous runner's high? It might
be closer to the drug-induced equivalent than you would think. Researchers
in the United Kingdom have linked the production of a brain chemical
to aerobic exercise. Measurements of phenylacetic acid levels in
the urine of healthy men after running on a treadmill for 30 minutes
increased by 14% to as much as 572%. Phenylacetic acid in the urine
reflects the level of phenylethylamine in the blood. This brain
chemical is similar to mood-elevating amphetamines and is found
in lower than normal concentrations in individuals suffering from
depression and bipolar disorder. The commonly experienced euphoria
known to distance runners is undoubtedly a more complex confluence
of variables neurochemical, psychosocial and biological but
these findings may be part of the explanation. Runners have always
known that the best cure for the blues is a nice, long run. (British
Journal of Sports Medicine, 2001, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 342-343)
Protein plays three vital roles in a runner's body. First, it is
of course the main structural component of muscles. Also, the enzymes
that catalyze many important chemical reactions in the body, including
those that produce energy during exercise, are proteins. And protein
itself can supply up to 15 percent of the energy used during long
runs. Some runners get too little protein, while others overdo it.
This is because runners tend not to monitor their protein intake
as they do their carbohydrate and fat intake. Also, few runners
recognize and take full advantage of the performance-boosting benefits
of consuming protein both during and after workouts.
A sedentary person or light exerciser requires about 0.8 gram of
protein per kilogram of bodyweight on a daily basis. An endurance
athlete in moderate training requires about 1.2 grams, one in heavy
training needs about 1.4 grams, and those maintaining maximal training
loads must take in 1.5 to 1.7 grams. For endurance athletes of all
levels, protein should account for approximately 15 percent of calories
consumed, whereas carbohydrate should account for 60 percent and
fat the other 25. Note that protein and carbohydrate yield four
calories per gram, while fat yields nine.
The human body cannot absorb more than about 1.9 grams per kilogram
of bodyweight. Any excess protein will be quickly converted to fat
and stored. Eating too much protein also causes dehydration and
loss of calcium from the bones.
Improving Cycling Performance
For the past two decades, sports drink research has focused on the
benefits of carbohydrate and fluid supplementation during exercise.
It has been well established that fluid replenishment can improve
temperature regulation and reduce cardiovascular stress. Similarly,
carbohydrate supplementation has been shown to delay the onset of
fatigue and improve endurance performance. This research established
the scientific underpinnings for the ideal composition of a sports
drink, which includes sodium, potassium and 6-8% carbohydrate. This
has been the standard for almost 15 years.
However, research is now showing that protein can provide additional
benefits when added to a carbohydrate/electrolyte sports drink.
Today there is strong evidence that protein, in the proper ratio
with carbohydrate, should be considered an essential ingredient
in an effective sports drink.
Taking in carbohydrate during exercise delays fatigue by increasing
the amount of energy that is supplied by blood glucose and thereby
slowing the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. The hormone insulin
is responsible for delivering carbohydrate to the muscle cell. Insulin
is released by the pancreas automatically in response to increasing
glucose levels in the blood.
But protein also stimulates insulin release. When a small amount
of protein is consumed with carbohydrate, there is a stronger insulin
response and glucose is delivered to the working muscles more quickly,
resulting in greater glycogen conservation and endurance. In a university
study, a sports drink containing carbohydrate and protein increased
endurance by 24 percent as compared to a conventional, carbohydrate-only
sports drink and by 57 percent as compared to water.
In workouts and races lasting more than 90 minutes, protein consumption
can delay fatigue still further by serving as a direct energy source.
After about 90 minutes of fairly high-intensity exercise, protein
can contribute as much as 20 percent of the muscles' energy supply.
In the absence of supplemental protein consumption, this energy
comes from the breakdown of muscle proteins, a sort of cannibalizing
process that weakens the muscles and causes debilitating soreness.
When an appropriate amount of protein is consumed during races,
muscle protein breakdown is reduced.
Protein and Muscle Recovery
As a general rule, within the first two hours after a workout, try
to consume between 0.5 and 1 gram of carbohydrate per kilogram of
your bodyweight. The lesser amount will suffice after a lighter
workout, whereas you'll need the greater amount after a hard or
long workout. In addition, consume about 1 gram of protein for every
4 grams of carbohydrate.
A number of studies have shown that consuming carbohydrate and
protein together within an hour of completing exercise results in
faster muscle glycogen resynthesis and faster muscle protein rebuilding
than when either carbohydrate or protein is taken alone, or when
both are taken more than an hour after exercise. In one study, a
carbohydrate-protein recovery drink increased insulin levels by
70 percent, decreased post-exercise muscle stress by 36 percent,
and extended next-workout endurance by 55 percent more than a sports
drink containing carbohydrate and no protein.
In order to maximize the health and performance benefits of protein,
including stronger muscles, better endurance, and faster recovery,
follow these simple protein consumption guidelines.
1.2 - 1.7 g per kg of bodyweight
10 - 20 g per hour
After Excercise (within one hour)
0.5 - 1.0 g per kg of bodyweight
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